Mississippi cotton growers are seeing big results from the state's effort to eradicate the boll weevil, according to Farrell Boyd, director of the Southeast Boll Weevil Eradication Foundation.
Boyd, who spoke Feb. 21 at the Joint Conference of the Mississippi Agricultural Pest Management Societies in Greenville, Miss., told attendees that the eradication program had successfully eradicated more than 90 percent of the pests from the 1.6 million acres of cotton planted statewide in 2001.
“We had 10 counties in the state with zero weevil captures in 2001,” he says. “There are still a few hotspots in the state, including areas in Adams, Jefferson, Grenada, Carroll, Montgomery, Bolivar, DeSoto and Tate counties. But for the most part, we've seen very good progress in all of the eradication regions.”
The “no fly” order issued after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and in effect for a longer period of time around cities such as Memphis likely affected the number of boll weevils found in the “hot spots” located in DeSoto and Tate counties.
“The no fly zone area did have a significant impact on the number of weevils trapped, but what kind of impact it will have on the number of treatments needed in 2002 is still to be determined,” Boyd says.
In the four-month period between May 9 and Sept. 12, 2001, Boyd says, 0.005 weevil per acre was trapped in Region 1 and 0.008 weevil per acre was trapped in Region 2. In comparison, 0.04 weevil per acre was trapped in each of the two eradication regions during the six-week period that the no-fly order was in effect, preventing aerial applicators from operating around the Memphis area.
Despite this minor setback, each of the four regions has experienced a substantial reduction in weevil populations since boll weevil trappings were initiated. Experiencing the biggest drop in weevil numbers was Region 4 with 99.5 percent fewer weevils, followed by Region 3 with a 98.2 percent drop, Region 2 with a 93.9 percent decrease, and Region 1 with 92.8 percent fewer weevils trapped per acre.
According to Boyd, less than one weevil per acre, on average, was trapped by the Mississippi Boll Weevil Eradication Program in 2001. Breaking it down further, eradication personnel documented 0.13 to 0.26 weevil per acre in Region 1, 0.12 weevil per acre in Region 2, 0.15 to 0.35 weevil per acre in Region 3, and 0.03 weevil per acre in Region 4.
A big help to the program, Boyd says, was the weather during the winter of 2000-01, which may have decreased the number of overwintering boll weevils.
Between the 2000 and 2001 crop seasons, the number of boll weevils infesting cotton fields dropped by 92.8 percent in Region 1, 82.2 percent in Region 2, 89.1 percent in Region 3, and 97.3 percent in Region 4.
In fact, Boyd says, the majority of Mississippi's cotton acreage required less than one control treatment for boll weevils in 2001. Meeting treatment criteria for the eradication program were 29 percent of fields in Region 1, 28 percent of fields in Region 2 and Region 3, and 17 percent of fields in Region 4.
Looking forward to the 2002 season, Boyd says the eradication program's goal this year is to completely eradicate the boll weevil from Mississippi cotton fields. “While we are striving for eradication in all four regions of the state, we plan to adjust our personnel and trap density in relation to the boll weevil populations, and treat those areas where weevils are found,” he says.
“Because the winter of 2000-01 has put us on an even keel with boll weevil populations across the state, we plan to put many of our baited pheromone traps at 600-foot intervals, instead of the 350-foot spacing we've used previously.”
Harvest Management, Weevil Eradication Reference Books
THE COTTON FOUNDATION
Reference Book Series' fifth and sixth volumes - which focus on harvest management and boll weevil eradication - are now available for order.
Cotton Harvest Management: Use and Influence of Harvest Aids, edited by Drs. James R. Supak, Texas A&M University, and Charles E. Snipes, Mississippi State University, is a comprehensive guide for consultants and growers that offers information for economical and efficient crop termination, including the use of defoliants and other harvest aids. The book is a culmination of the efforts of the Cotton Defoliation Working Group (CDWG) to uniformly assess harvest-aid performance under a wide range of cultural and environmental conditions found across the Cotton Belt. In addition to research results, the book addresses harvest aids' history, technology and future.
Volume No. 6 is Boll Weevil Eradication in the United States Through 1999, and Dr. Frank Carter, the National Cotton Council's manager, pest management, regulatory, is one of the authors. The book contains 26 chapters and chronicles the arrival, spread and problems created by boll weevil. It also describes the role of producers, USDA and Congress in planning, operation and coordination of eradication programs, including program economics and control methods.
Previous cotton reference series volumes focused on physiology, weeds, insects/mites, and vegetable oils/agrichemicals.
All of these books except Cotton Physiology are still available from the Foundation.
All volumes except the vegetable oils/agrichemicals are $25, but series discounts are available. To order, contact The Cotton Foundation at 901-274-9030 or at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The weevil eradication volume also can be ordered from the Southeastern Boll Weevil Eradication Foundation office in Montgomery, Ala., by calling 334-223-7532.