GREENVILLE, Miss. - For many Mid-South producers the annual gamble of farming took on higher stakes this year. More early-maturing soybean varieties were planted on Mid-South acres than ever before, and most of them were contracted for guaranteed delivery in August.
By the end of planting, MSU Extension soybean specialist Alan Blaine categorized Mississippi’s 2004 soybean crop as “one of the earliest soybean crops on record for the state with the majority of the fields in Group IV varieties," Blaine says. "By reaching maturity sooner, plants should not be as prone to suffer from the typical dry conditions, and growers will be able to harvest much earlier."
He was right about the earlier harvest. By Aug. 13, trucks were lined up at south and central Mississippi grain elevators with high quality soybeans and yields ranging from 40 to 70 bushels an acre.
Steve Nail, president and CEO of Farmers Grain Terminal (FGT) Inc., headquartered in Greenville, Miss., says they received twice as many soybeans the first two weeks of August of this year as they received during the same time period last year.
FGT has elevators in nine locations in Northeast Louisiana, Southeast Arkansas and the Mississippi Delta.
Nail says that of the 4,000 producer owners of FGT, Mississippi producers are well ahead in soybean delivery.
“The quality is good on these early soybeans, and the yields are between 40 and 70 bushels per acre in general, with most of them in the 50-to-60-bushel range.
Even though the yields are running well above the state’s average, Nail says the increase in soybeans being delivered so early in the season is due to the increase in acres planted to early-maturing varieties and not the yields.
“The yields appear to be about the same as last year… good yields,” he says. “We got a few beans in late July, but the majority of them have come in the last 10 days.”
Nail says the majority of those beans were contracted, and growers received a premium for the early delivery.
“The premium ranged from 25 cents to as high as a $1.50 a bushel. The variation would have been when they booked them,” he says. “Currently, it (the premium) is down to about 15 or 20 cents. The big rush to get them harvested and get them in isn’t as great now as it was. They are just doing it now because they are ready,” says Nail.
However, further north in the state, a spokesperson at North Mississippi Grain Company in Senatobia, Miss., said as of Aug. 13, they had not received any soybeans for early delivery. And crop reports from USDA do not report any significant soybean harvest in Arkansas, Tennessee or the Missouri Bootheel.
“Strangely enough, Mississippi came in earlier than Louisiana this year. We usually see Louisiana first, but so far Mississippi producers are leading the pack,” says Nail.
Dan Poston, Delta soybean specialist for the MSU Extension Service, says yields for soybeans harvested so far in the Central Delta are better than expected given excessive June rains.
“Most yield reports range from 45-to-60 bushels an acre for most dryland acres and 65 to 75 plus acres for some of the well-drained irrigated acres,” says Poston. “I haven't gotten many reports from the North Delta where rainfall was higher in June, but the yields seem to be better than I would have guessed given the environmental conditions they endured.”
He says the most disappointing harvest thus far has been on limited acreage in flat-planted fields where producers could not get the water off during the June rains. These fields are not that widespread, but yields are in the 20-to-30-bushel-acre range.
”This crop is maturing more uniformly than previous ones because we had more uniform moisture later in the growing season,” says Poston.
However, not every producer who contracted for August delivery has met their commitment and some that sell their beans at delivery would like the 15 to 20-cent premium.
It’s a need for speed that has kept the phones ringing for area agronomists.
“There is no need to get in a hurry unless you have to make August delivery,” says Poston, “but we’ve had many questions about desiccants to speed up harvest. However, even though there are several recommendations for drying down the beans to speed up harvest, the desiccation will not speed the maturity of the pod.
Chris Tingle, Extension soybean specialist in Arkansas, is being inundated with calls from growers wanting to know how to accelerate soybean maturity.
“This is not as simple as some would like it to be,” says Tingle. “Applications of products like Gramoxone Extra, sodium chlorate and Aim will desiccate the crop, but it will not accelerate the conversion of moisture to oil within the seed. These applications should be focused more on trying to dry down weed escapes prior to harvest to reduce moisture and trash,” says Tingle.
“Early research has shown that if the crop is desiccated prematurely, we can see decreased yields, decreased seed quality and possible delays in harvest,” says Tingle. “The best thing for the crop right now is to let it do its thing. I know some producers with August contracts are getting nervous and will probably not heed this advice, but I must warn you of the dangers.”
For more information about this and other end-of-season management decisions, see the latest issue of Arkansas’ Soybean Notes at: http://www.aragriculture.org/News/soybean_notes/2004/August32004%20.pdf
For Mississippi producers, Poston says MSU Extension offers the following recommendations for harvest preparation:
- A treatment of 0.25 pounds active ingredient per acre of paraquat and 3 pounds of sodium chlorate with 0.25 percent v/v nonionic surfactant. “This treatment has a 15-day, pre-harvest interval because of the inclusion of paraquat; therefore this needs to go out at 80 percent leaf drop when the beans still have some green color and leaves,” says Poston.
- A treatment of 1.4 ounces of product per acre of Aim 2EC and 3 pounds of sodium chlorate plus 1 percent crop oil concentrate. Poston adds, however, they’ve seen little difference between 1 ounce per acre and 1.4 ounces per acre of Aim. “This treatment only has a three-day pre-harvest interval, so it can be used to dry down beans and weeds in fields where the soybeans are very close to harvest,” he says.
- A treatment of 5 pounds of sodium chlorate. “This has some dry down capability but really needs the herbicidal help from paraquat or Aim to really do a good job on weeds and green soybeans,” he says.
- A treatment of 0.75 pounds acid equivalent per acre of glyphosate two weeks prior to harvest - primarily for annual grass infestations only. “This treatment has a 14-day preharvest interval and will not dry down beans but will improve harvest efficiency and may reduce humidity around mature pods thereby reducing the likelihood of losses in seed quality due to seed rot. Even if grasses are only yellow at harvest, combining will be much easier,” says Poston.